How humans see color
When light reflected off an object enters the eye through the pupil it is flipped upside down by a clear lens behind the iris. The light is then projected on to the retina, the part of the eye where vision is generated. The retina contains a lot of vision cells, of two main types – cones and rods. Cone photoreceptors are most important to color vision. The cones distinguish color based on light’s wavelength – for example, as covered earlier in this eBook, a long wavelength is red and a short wavelength is violet. The photoreceptors then convert the wavelengths into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the nervous system, creating color sight as we know it.
Some people are partially or totally color blind and this occurs because one or more color pigments is missing or damaged from the cone or rod vision cells.